This year, Angela surprises herself — she tells the truth. The Gillespies are far from the perfect family that Angela has made them out to be. Her husband is coping poorly with retirement. Her year-old twins are having career meltdowns.
History[ edit ] When the first paper volume of Donald Knuth 's The Art of Computer Programming was published in it was typeset using hot metal typesetting set by a Monotype machine. This method, dating back to the 19th century, produced a "classic style" appreciated by Knuth.
When Knuth received the galley proofs of the new book on 30 Marchhe found them inferior. Disappointed by the galley proofs, he was motivated to design his own typesetting system.
On 13 Mayhe wrote a memo to himself describing the basic features of TeX. Guy Steele happened to be at Stanford during the summer ofwhen Knuth was developing his first version of TeX. For later versions of TeX, Knuth invented the concept of literate programminga way of producing compilable source code and cross-linked documentation typeset in TeX from the same original file.
A new version of TeX, rewritten from scratch and called TeX82, was published in Among other changes, the original hyphenation algorithm was replaced by a new algorithm written by Frank Liang. TeX82 also uses fixed-point arithmetic instead of floating-pointto ensure reproducibility of the results across different computer hardware,  and includes a real, Turing-complete programming language, following intense lobbying by Guy Steele.
This is a reflection of the fact that TeX is now very stable, and only minor updates are anticipated. The current version of TeX is 3. Even though Donald Knuth himself has suggested a few areas in which TeX could have been improved, he indicated that he firmly believes that having an unchanged system that will produce the same output now and in the future is more important than introducing new features.
Since the source code of TeX is essentially in the public domain see belowother programmers are allowed and explicitly encouraged to improve the system, but are required to use another name to distribute the modified TeX, meaning that the source code can still evolve.
For example, the Omega project was developed afterprimarily to enhance TeX's multilingual typesetting abilities.
Knuth created "unofficial" modified versions, such as TeX-XeTwhich allows a user to mix texts written in left-to-right and right-to-left writing systems in the same document.
Almost all of TeX's syntactic properties can be changed on the fly, which makes TeX input hard to parse by anything but TeX itself. TeX is a macro - and token -based language: Expansion itself is practically free from side effects. Tail recursion of macros takes no memory, and if-then-else constructs are available.
This makes TeX a Turing-complete language even at the expansion level. Combinations of a backslash actually, any character of category zero followed by letters characters of category 11 or a single other character are replaced by a control-sequence token.
In this sense, this stage is like lexical analysis, although it does not form numbers from digits. In the next stage, expandable control sequences such as conditionals or defined macros are replaced by their replacement text. The input for the third stage is then a stream of characters including ones with special meaning and unexpandable control sequences typically assignments and visual commands.
Here characters get assembled into a paragraph. TeX's paragraph breaking algorithm works by optimizing breakpoints over the whole paragraph. The fourth stage breaks the vertical list of lines and other material into pages.
The TeX system has precise knowledge of the sizes of all characters and symbols, and using this information, it computes the optimal arrangement of letters per line and lines per page.
This dvi file can be printed directly given an appropriate printer driver, or it can be converted to other formats. The base TeX system understands about commands, called primitives. Knuth's original default format, which adds about commands, is Plain TeX.
Another widely used format, AMS-TeXis produced by the American Mathematical Society and provides many more user-friendly commands, which can be altered by journals to fit with their house style.
By default, everything that follows a percent sign on a line is a comment, ignored by TeX. A DVI file could then either be viewed on screen or converted to a suitable format for any of the various printers for which a device driver existed printer support was generally not an operating system feature at the time that TeX was created.
Mathematical example[ edit ] TeX provides a different text syntax specifically for mathematical formulas. For example, the quadratic formula which is the solution of the quadratic equation appears as:Jul 12, · There is lots of content out there about what a great career freelance writing is.
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