The conclusion of the book, which was much influenced by the Milgram experiment on obedience, was that the men of Unit were not demons or Nazi fanatics but ordinary middle-aged men of working-class background from Hamburgwho had been drafted but found unfit for military duty. In the course of the murderous Operation Reinhardthese men were ordered to round up Jews, and if there was not enough room for them on the trains, to shoot them. In other, more chilling cases, they were ordered simply to kill a specified number of Jews in a given town or area. In one instance, the commander of the unit gave his men the choice of opting out of this duty if they found it too unpleasant; the majority chose not to exercise that option, resulting in fewer than 15 men out of a battalion of opting out.
Terminology[ edit ] The degree is abbreviated PhD sometimes Ph. All of these faculties awarded intermediate degrees bachelor of arts, of theology, of laws, of medicine and final degrees.
The doctorates in the higher faculties were quite different from the current PhD degree in that they were awarded for advanced scholarship, not original research. No dissertation or original work was required, only lengthy residency requirements and examinations.
Besides these degrees, there was the licentiate. Originally this was a license to teach, awarded shortly before the award of the master or doctor degree by the diocese in which the university was located, but later it evolved into an academic degree in its own right, in particular in the continental universities.
According to Keith Allan Noblethe first doctoral degree was awarded in medieval Paris around But before the early modern era, there were many exceptions to this. Most students left the university without becoming masters of arts, whereas regulars members of monastic orders could skip the arts faculty entirely.
The arts faculty, which in Germany was labelled the faculty of philosophy, started demanding contributions to research,  attested by a dissertation, for the award of their final degree, which was labelled Doctor of Philosophy abbreviated as Ph. Whereas in the Middle Ages the arts faculty had a set curriculum, based upon the trivium and the quadriviumby the 19th century it had come to house all the courses of study in subjects now commonly referred to as sciences and humanities.
The American students would go to Germany to obtain a PhD after having studied for a bachelor's degrees at an American college. So influential was this practice that it was imported to the United States, where in Yale University started granting the PhD degree to younger students who, after having obtained the bachelor's degree, had completed a prescribed course of graduate study and successfully defended a thesis or dissertation containing original research in science or in the humanities.
The PhD degree and similar awards spread across Europe in the 19th and early 20th centuries. The degree was introduced in France inreplacing diplomas as the highest academic degree; into Russia inwhen the Doktor Nauk degree, roughly equivalent to a PhD, gradually started replacing the specialist diplomaroughly equivalent to the MA, as the highest academic degree; and in Italy inwhen PhDs gradually started replacing the Laurea as the highest academic degree.
The University of London introduced the DSc inbut as an advanced study course, following on directly from the BSc, rather than a research degree.
The first higher doctorate in the modern sense was Durham University 's DSc, introduced in These were, however, very advanced degrees, rather than research-training degrees at the PhD level— Harold Jeffreys said that getting a Cambridge ScD was "more or less equivalent to being proposed for the Royal Society".
In the English but not the Scottish universities the Faculty of Arts had become dominant by the early 19th century.
Indeed, the higher faculties had largely atrophied, since medical training had shifted to teaching hospitals,  the legal training for the common law system was provided by the Inns of Court with some minor exceptions, see Doctors' Commonsand few students undertook formal study in theology.
This contrasted with the situation in the continental European universities at the time, where the preparatory role of the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts was to a great extent taken over by secondary education: The reforms at the Humboldt University transformed the Faculty of Philosophy or Arts and its more recent successors such as the Faculty of Sciences from a lower faculty into one on a par with the Faculties of Law and Medicine.
There were similar developments in many other continental European universities, and at least until reforms in the early 21st century many European countries e. To this day this is also still the case for the pontifical degrees in theology and canon law: Until the midth century, advanced degrees were not a criterion for professorships at most colleges.
That began to change as the more ambitious scholars at major schools went to Germany for 1 to 3 years to obtain a PhD in the sciences or humanities. Major shifts toward graduate education were foretold by the opening of Clark University in which offered only graduate programs and the Johns Hopkins University which focused on its PhD program.
By the s, Harvard, Columbia, Michigan and Wisconsin were building major graduate programs, whose alumni were hired by new research universities. ByPhDs were awarded annually, most of them by six universities. It was no longer necessary to study in Germany.
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