One Literature Review Sample:
Functional magnetic resonance image using 3. Optimised voxel-based morphometry VBM technique. All participants underwent fMRI 3. FMRI was carried out during 40 blocks of either a s ball game with the goal being to gain space or a similar control condition that did not include a specific game goal as based on its structural makeup.
Results indicated that there was an activation of neural circuitries that are involved in reward and addiction in the experimental condition i. Consequently, the presence of an actual game goal a characteristic of most conventional online games that are rule-based rather than pure role-playing gamesmodified brain activity via behavior.
Here, a clear cause and effect relationship is evident, which adds strength to the findings. The results furthermore indicated that playing the game activated the right insula rI; signals autonomic arousalright dorso-lateral PFC maximize reward or change behaviorbilateral premotor cortices blPMC; preparation for reward and the precuneus, lNAc, and the rOFC areas involved in visual processing, visuo-spatial attention, motor function, and sensori-motor transformation compared to the resting state [ 43 ].
The insula has been implicated in conscious craving for addictive substances by implicating decision-making processes involving risk and reward. Insula dysfunction may explain neurological activities indicative of relapse [ 60 ].
Due to its experimental nature, this study was able to provide insight into idiosyncratic brain activation as a consequence of gaming in a healthy i. The authors presented gaming-related and paired mosaic pictures during fMRI scanning 3T MRscannerand contrasts in BOLD signals in both conditions were analyzed using a cue reactivity paradigm [ 25 ].
The results indicated cue induced craving that is common among those with substance dependence. This activation correlated with gaming urge and a recalling of gaming experience. It was argued that there is a similar biological basis of different addictions including online gaming addiction.
The quasi-experimental nature of this study that artificially induced craving in an experimental and controlled setting allowed the authors to make conclusions as based on group differences, and thus linking online gaming addiction status to the activation of brain areas associated with symptoms of more traditional i.
All participants completed the Beck Depression Inventory [ 78 ], the Internet Addiction Scale [ 67 ], and a 7-point visual analogue scale VAS to assess craving for Internet video game play. These were further divided into two groups: They also reported that increased craving for Internet video games correlated with increased activity in the anterior cingulate for all participants.
This quasi-experimental study is insightful for it not only offered evidence for a dissimilar brain activity in online gaming addicts compared to a general player control group, but it also elucidated brain activation that occurs as a consequence of playing in both groups.
This indicates that i craving for online games alters brain activity irrespective of addiction status and might therefore be seen as a prodromal symptom of addiction, and that ii addicted players can be distinguished from non-addicted online gamers by a different form of brain activation.
The sample comprised 19 college students with Internet addiction and 19 controls.
Regional homogeneity indicates temporal homogeneity of brain oxygen levels in brain regions of interest. It was reported that Internet addicts suffered from functional brain changes leading to abnormalities in regional homogeneity relative to the control group, particularly concerning the reward pathways traditionally associated with substance addictions.
Among Internet addicts, brain regions in ReHo in resting state were increased cerebellum, brainstem, rCG, bilateral parahippocampus blPHippright frontal lobe, left superior frontal gyrus lSFGright inferior temporal gyrus rITGleft superior temporal gyrus lSTG and middle temporal gyrus mTGrelative to the control group.
The temporal regions are involved in auditory processing, comprehension and verbal memory, whereas the occipital regions take care of visual processing.
The cerebellum regulates cognitive activity. The cingulate gyrus pertains to integrating sensory information, and monitoring conflict. Taken together, these findings provide evidence for a change in a variety of brain regions as a consequence of Internet addiction.Literature Review A Step-by-Step Guide for Students [SAGE Study Skills Series] by Ridley, Diana [SAGE Publications Ltd, ] [Paperback] Second (2nd) edition on Reviews: Published: Tue, 10 Jan Chapter 2 Literature Review Introduction to Literature Review.
This chapter will mainly discuss on the study that are done by previous research of other authors in the similar area of the present study. LITERATURE REVIEW Nowadays, people use internet as a daily device to access their emails, do online tasks, to read online headline, look for certain information and many other functions (Bellman, ).
Sep 05, · The studies included in this literature review appear to provide compelling evidence for the similarities between different types of addictions, notably substance-related addictions and Internet addiction, on a variety of levels.
Also, a literature review can be interpreted as a review of an abstract accomplishment. The objective of this study is to investigate the factors affecting online shopping. A model explaining the impact of different factors on online shopping intentions and behavior is developed based on the theory of planned behavior.
shopping to online regardbouddhiste.com total retail size in India is billion dollar (Technopak, ). Out of that organized retail is 34 billion dollar (7 % of all retail) (pwc, ).