How did 9 11 01 affect the way

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How did 9 11 01 affect the way

Infrasound and low-frequency noise — does it affect human health? Why is it that i nfrasound and low frequency noise ILFN is still such a taboo subject? These may, or may not, be felt or heard by human beings. In order to clarify concepts, in this report the following definitions are used: To generate the sounds in a telephone earpiece, he used an AC voltage and had some of his colleagues rate the loudness of the sound received compared to the quietest tone heard.

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The company was already using a logarithmic scale to describe the power in an electrical cable and it made sense to rate the loudness of the sounds also on a logarithmic scale related to the quietest voltage that could just be heard. A tenth of a Bel became known as the deciBel, corrupted to decibel, which has stuck with the scientific community to this day.

Fletcher-Munson curves and the dBA metric To address the problem of industrial noise in the early 20th century, measurement was essential, as was a metric. From a biomedical perspective, this concept of perception is subjective, and changes between individuals and over timescales from minutes to decades.

These serious constraints notwithstanding, it was acknowledged that some average measure of loudness would have some value for medicine and public health.

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Harvey continued his research with Wilden Munsen, one of his team, by varying the frequency of the electricity to give pure tones, to which it is understood 23 of his colleagues listened to different levels of loudness, again through a simple telephone earpiece.

It is assumed they all had good hearing. They were then asked to score the sounds for equal loudness to that generated by an alternating current at cycles per second.

The level of the sound of course depended on the voltage applied, which could be measured. It is important to note two significant constraints here: This is a very unnatural way to listen to a very unnatural sound.

The numerical results of this study are known as the Fletcher-Munsen Curves Fig 1. A-frequency weighting scale The minimum pressure required for humans to perceive sound at Hz is considered to be 20 micropascal, or an intensity of watts per square meter.

How did 9 11 01 affect the way

This corresponds to 0 phon on Figure 1, and 0 dBA in Figure 2. For all its shortcomings, the A-weighting has endured for decades and has become the de facto standard for environmental noise measurement. But is the A-weighting sufficient for all circumstances? It relates to the perception of loudness, which heavily discounts all frequencies below Hz and ends at 20 Hz.

This Hz limit was a consequence of equipment limitations of the s and 30s, but has remained as the lower limit of human hearing to this day. The assumption that harm from excessive noise exposure is directly related to the perception of loudness has also remained to this day.

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Observe in Fig 2 that, at 10 Hz, there is a dB difference between what is measured and what is, de facto, present in the environment.

In other words, three-and-a-half orders of magnitude of energy are discounted at this frequency. The implications for public health are considerable, and within this line of reasoning, any event below 20 Hz becomes of no consequence whatsoever — and more so because it is not implicated in the classical effects of excessive noise exposure: There are also issues of time and frequency resolution.

Acoustic phenomena are time-varying events. A minute average of acoustic events can hide more than it reveals. Waveform analysis from the sound file directly can achieve an even better resolution. Field studies in Ireland The following results, recently obtained in field-studies conducted in Ireland July-Novembershow why such resolution is needed to understand ILFN-rich environments.

How did 9 11 01 affect the way

Equipment and methods Acoustical environments were recorded with a SAM Scribe FS recording system, a 2-channel recorder with sampling rates up to Windshields were placed on both microphones during the entire measurement sessions.

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To address the problem of industrial noise in the early 20th century, measurement was essential, as was a metric. At that time, researchers were critically aware that the readings on a sound level meter did not represent how loud or intense the sound was with respect to the subject’s perception of hearing.

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Infrasound and low-frequency noise – does it affect human health? - Engineers Journal