Addiction experts in psychiatry, chemistry, pharmacology, forensic science, epidemiology, and the police and legal services engaged in delphic analysis regarding 20 popular recreational drugs. Cannabis was ranked 11th in dependence, 17th in physical harm, and 10th in social harm.
Urinalysis Urine analysis is primarily used because of its low cost.
Urine drug testing is one of the most common testing methods used. The enzyme-multiplied immune test is the most frequently used urinalysis. Complaints have been made about the relatively high rates of false positives using this test. The level of drug or its metabolites is not predictive of when the drug was taken or how much the patient used.
Rather, it is simply a confirmatory report indicating the presence of the parent drug or its metabolites. Drugs which may be present in the urine specimen compete against their respective drug conjugate for binding sites on their specific antibody.
During testing, a urine specimen migrates upward by capillary action. A drug, if present in the urine specimen below its cut-off concentration, will not saturate the binding sites of its specific antibody.
The antibody will then react with the drug-protein conjugate and a visible colored line will show up in the test line region of the specific drug strip.
The urine sample goes through a specified 'chain of custody' to ensure that it is not tampered with or invalidated through lab or employee error.
The first step at the testing site is to split the urine into two aliquots. One aliquot is first screened for drugs using an analyzer that performs immunoassay as the initial screen.
To ensure the specimen integrity and detecting possible adulterant, some other parameters such as, urine creatininepH, and specific gravity are tested along in this initial test. If the urine screen is positive then another aliquot of the sample is used to confirm the findings by gas chromatography — mass spectrometry GC-MS or liquid chromatography - mass spectrometry methodology.
If requested by the physician or employer, certain drugs are screened for individually; these are generally drugs part of a chemical class that are, for one of many reasons, considered more abuse-prone or of concern.
For instance, oxycodone and diamorphine may be tested, both sedative analgesics. If such a test is not requested specifically, the more general test in the preceding case, the test for opiates will detect the drugs, but the employer or physician will not have the benefit of the identity of the drug.
Employment-related test results are relayed to a medical review office MRO where a medical physician reviews the results.
If the result of the screen is negative, the MRO informs the employer that the employee has no detectable drug in the urine, typically within 24 hours. However, if the test result of the immunoassay and GC-MS are non-negative and show a concentration level of parent drug or metabolite above the established limit, the MRO contacts the employee to determine if there is any legitimate reason—such as a medical treatment or prescription.
Although the accuracy of such tests varies with the manufacturer, some kits boast extremely high rates of accuracy, correlating closely with laboratory test results. Breathalyzer Breath test being used on a volunteer. Breath test is a widespread method for quickly determining alcohol intoxication.
A breath test measures the alcohol concentration in the body by a deep-lung breath. There are different instruments used for measuring the alcohol content of an individual though their breath.The Associated Press delivers in-depth coverage on today's Big Story including top stories, international, politics, lifestyle, business, entertainment, and more.
If you’d like to learn how to start a drug testing service, there are quite a few things to consider. Virtually every type of employer is guaranteeing a drug-free workplace. and it’s clear that the drug testing business is a growth industry.
If you plan on doing the actual testing on-site, you’ll need laboratory equipment and. Fortune Daily & Breaking Business News. Sign up now to receive FORTUNE's best content, special offers, and much more.
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