The closer a paper is to the top of a page, the more recently it was written. The title of the paper, usually typed in capital letters, is followed by a brief description of the paper and a specification of text page length NOT including the bibliography or endnote pagesnumber of footnotes or citations, and number of bibliographic references. Notes on the State of Virginia Thomas Jefferson. Although Jefferson makes a sensible argument, his findings are criticized for being based on observation rather than scientific methods.
Photo-Secession At the beginning of American modernism, photography still struggled to be recognized as a form of art.
The photographer Alfred Stieglitz described it as: I could not understand why the artists should envy me for my work, yet, in the same breath, decry it because it was machine-made. At that point, their main style was pictorialistwhich was known for Common question about early american history essay photos through soft focus, special filters or exotic printing processes, to imitate the style of paintings and etchings of that time.
For means of publication, Stieglitz, as the driving force of the movement, started the magazine Camera Workin which he published artists he felt represented the movement. He also ran three galleries one after another, namely "" —"The Intimate Gallery" — and "An American Place" — A further link to the European avant-garde was established by Man Ray.
Born in America and inspired by the work he saw in Stieglitz' galleries, Ray emigrated to Paris in and together with artists of the European Dada and Surrealist movements created new photographic techniques such as rayographs placing objects directly on photosensitive paper. In the early s, photographers moved towards what they called straight photography.
In contrast to the pictorialist style, they now rejected any kind of manipulation in the photographic process e.
Their motifs were supposed to look as objective as possible. Turning the focus away from classic portraiture and the pictorialist style, the photographers started using their pictures as means for representing the harsh realities of everyday life, but at the same time tried to search for the beauty in the detail or the overall aesthetical structure.
Machines and factory work, sky scrapers and technical innovations became prominent motifs. In some younger photographers e. Feminism, gender, and sexuality[ edit ] Development of feminism[ edit ] Starting from the early 19th century, some women used the doctrines of the ideal femaleness to avoid the isolation of the domestic sphere.
By the s, women were openly challenging the women's sphere and demanding greater political, economic and social rights. They formed women's clubs and benevolent societies all over the U. Male domination of the public arena was no longer within acceptable limits to many of these middle-class activist women.
Beginning with the Seneca Falls Convention inAmerican feminists held state and national conventions until the early 20th century. Some spokeswomen of the feminist movement connected the feminist cause with free love and the sexual revolution, which were the taboo issues of the Victorian Age.
Therefore, feminists in both Britain and the United States concentrated on political and legal issues, the vote in particular, and other important women's issues regarding the domestic roles of women and the organization of domestic life in general.
Eventually, after a long and hard struggle that included massive, sometimes violent protests, the imprisonment of many women, and even some deaths, the battle for women's suffrage was won. The suffrage law was passed in the United States in for women who were householders or wives of householders and in for all adult women.
African-American women were not included.
They only received the right to vote in the Civil Rights Movement of the s. The largest women's rights group in the U.
NOW aimed to end sexual discrimination, especially in the workplace, by means of legislative lobbying, litigation, and public demonstrations. The following years of the late 20th century witnessed a great expansion of women's rights in all areas of the modern society.
Modernist artists had an ambivalent attitude towards feminism: As the radical feminist Emma Goldman proclaimed, "true liberation begins neither at the polls nor in courts [but rather] in a woman's soul" qtd. Gender and sexuality[ edit ] The roles of gender and sexuality in American modernism were elaborated through studies of national identity and citizenship, racial identity and race politics, queer identity and aesthetics, magazine culture, visual culture, market economies, and historical accounts of 20th century political modernity.
Immense work done by scholars of feminism, gender, and sexuality helped to restructure the field of American modernist scholarship.
Women writers have become the subjects of extensive literary study. Gay and lesbian communities have been revalued as patterns of modern aesthetic experimentation, and sexual identity and gender formation were interpreted in a new way.
The turn of the 20th century cultural life saw a shift to a dichotomy of mass culture versus high culture, with the former generally thought feminine, and high culture thought male-oriented. Formerly denounced popular fiction now served the feminist purpose.
Sexual difference was portrayed by women themselves with the help of the media available to them. This manifested itself for example in Mina Loy 's "sex-talk" which is "stunning both for the focus it places on a woman's sexual disappointment and for the balance it strikes between clinical frankness and poetic indirection" Lyon It also entailed the breaking up of traditional gender roles.
They were no longer exclusively male or female but there was also an acknowledgment of homosexuality, feminine men, and masculine women. Thus the concept of sexuality became multi-layered, as in Djuna Barnes ' novel Nightwood in which she obliterates all established ideas of gender and sexuality.
This early debate dealing with these issues cleared the way for contemporary approaches to gender, for instance that of Judith Butler in her book Gender Trouble American icons in the European mind[ edit ] Definition of "American icon"[ edit ] This section focuses on people and objects that represent American modernism.
Generally speaking, these famous human beings and well-known objects are called icons since, apart from radiating an aura of uniqueness as well as originality cf.ap american history essay Cassie Creer p. 3 10/9/ AP American History Essay The British North American colonies grew considerably between and Imports and exports across the Atlantic caused a constant demand for labor in the colonies.
The issue of genocide and American Indian history has been contentious. Many writers see the massive depopulation of the indigenous population of the Americas after as a clear-cut case of the genocide. Other writers, however, contend that European and U.S.
actions toward Indians were deplorable but were rarely if ever genocidal. To a . I think you’ve noted what is a continuing thread in American cultural history, Victoria. “Know-nothing” and “all opinions are equal” is an anti-intellectual theme which today plays out through aegis of most notably Fox News amplifying what the GOP has used as a political tool at least since Nixon’s era.
Throughout United States history, individuals have used writing as a way to focus attention on issues facing the American people.
To resolve the issues raised in these writings, actions have been taken by the government, groups, or individuals. The Preamble to the Constitution has been largely ignored by lawyers and courts through American history. Rarely has a Supreme Court decision relied on it, even as a guide in interpreting the Constitution.
You must complete an argumentative essay to pass the course. The essay will be at least five paragraphs and will probably come in around pages double-spaced with pt., New York Times font (often listed as Times, New Roman).
It will address a question that informed people disagree on and you’ll show what light history sheds on the topic.