Girls traditionally learned household skills from their female elders by the age of eight.
May 01, Date Last Reviewed: June 01, Contents Country of Origin The Hmong people relocated throughout their history, maintaining a strong sense of cultural identity and independence.
Evidence suggests the Hmong lived in Siberia as similarities are seen between the Hmong and Siberian shaman practices. Chinese text suggests the Hmong originated in B. For several thousand years, the Hmong lived relatively independently while paying tribute to the Chinese government.
However, under the oppression of the armies of the last dynasty in China, the Hmong rose in rebellion. In the s, faced with political persecution, depleted soil fertility and increasing population pressure, some Hmong migrated into Southeast Asia.
They settled in the mountains of northern Burma, Thailand, Laos, and Vietnam. After the communist takeover in Laos, Hmong soldiers and family fled Laos to refugee camps in Thailand. Some Hmong remained in the Thai camps, while many resettled in other parts of the world.
The worldwide Hmong population is approximately 6, in China where the Hmong are called Miao;in Vietnam;in Laos;in Thailand;in Burma;in the United States; 8, in France; and 1, in Australia. The majority of Hmong living in the United States today are those who came directly from Laos or via Thai refugee camps.
Laos Laos covers about ninety-one thousand square miles, an area similar to that of the United Kingdom or slightly larger than Utah. Laos is landlocked and shares borders with Thailand to the west, Burma to the northwest, China to the north, Vietnam to the east and Cambodia to the south.
Mountains and the Mekong River valley are the main geographic features. The Plain of Jars in the northeast and the Bolovens Plateau in the southern panhandle sit about three thousand feet above sea level.
South of the Plain of Jars lies the Phou Bia Massif mountain range that rises to almost ten thousand feet. The Annamite Mountains form an eastern border with Vietnam.
The Hmong living in highland Laos practiced slash and burn agriculture on the fertile, shallow, mountaintop soil. The climate is tropical monsoon, with a rainy season May to November and a dry season December to April.
Natural hazards include floods and droughts and current environmental issues include unexploded ordnance landminesdeforestation and soil erosion. Most of the population does not have access to clean drinking water.
In Laos, the Hmong lived separately from the Lao people. During the period of French colonialism in SE Asia, the French relied on the Hmong for their skills in weaponry and military service.
Though often treated badly by fellow countrymen, the Hmong excelled in government service positions and as liaisons with the representatives of the French government.
Inmany Hmong-Lao fled to Thailand as refugees, escaping the persecution and retaliation of the Lao communist government.
Many people drowned or were killed. Hmong who survived the journey settled in refugee camps in Thailand. Conditions in the camps were horrible; there was little food, sanitation or clean water. The first Hmong refugees began arriving in the US in latemostly sponsored by religious groups and non-profit organizations.
Refugee arrivals peaked at 27, inand decreased to less than 5, by The numbers began increasing again inwith more than 10, Hmong arriving in In the early s many UN refugee camps in Thailand were closed and Hmong who remained there were forced to move to a non-UN camp at the Thai Buddhist temple Wat Tham Krabok, where suffering continued, especially isolation from not being allowed to go outside of the camp.
For survival and permission to cross out of the camp and local areas, many Hmong refugees became Thai citizens Hmong Thai by paying sums of money borrowed from relatives. Through pleas for asylum brought by Hmong human rights groups in the U.Crossing Borders in Birthing Practices: A Hmong Village in Northern Thailand () by Kathleen A.
Culhane- Pera, Sarinya Sriphetcharawut, Rasamee Thawsirichuchai, Wirachon Yangyeunkun, and Peter Kunstadter. Hmong women and childbirth practices Jump to navigation Jump to search.
This Pregnancy and labor. During pregnancy, Hmong women carried out their daily responsibilities until the day they went into labor.
Since the Hmong were fighting against Laos, they had to evacuate their homes there and live in refugee camps in Thailand. Avoid Addressing Hmong Women by their first name. Use Ms./Mrs. and a last name. Eye Contact: Hmong people tend to listen attentively to healthcare professionals, but will often avoid direct eye contact because it is considered rude in their culture.
Be Aware of Your Body Language: Use a normal tone of voice. Be aware of body language.
Traditions and plant use during pregnancy, childbirth and postpartum recovery by the Kry ethnic group in Lao PDR Dietary restrictions during pregnancy are reported from other ethnic groups in Laos: the Hmong, Phunoi, Phutai and Khmu avoid eating too much for Katang women in labor traditionally leave the village and give birth in the.
The female interviews focused on pregnancy, childbirth and labor, and in addition plants used in women's healthcare and for treating diseases in children. Following the interviews walks were made in the surrounding forest to collect the plants mentioned during the . Understanding Traditional Hmong Health and Prenatal Care Beliefs, Practices, Utilization and Needs practices, and needs of Hmong women age and men age and dramatically in the Hmong refugees from Laos and .