SengeDoubleday Part I: How Our Actions Create our Reality and How we can Change it Solutions to the problems that we face are within our reach; we have the power to control our destinies. Chapter 1 introduces key book concepts:
Inthe Project Management Institute PMI documented the expansion of these techniques across non-defense organizations. The rule applies at all levels within the hierarchy: This ambiguity could result in duplicated work or miscommunications about responsibility and authority.
Such overlap could also cause confusion regarding project cost accounting. The WBS Dictionary describes each component of the WBS with milestonesdeliverables, activities, scope, and sometimes dates, resourcescosts, quality.
Plan outcomes, not actions[ edit ] If the work breakdown structure designer attempts to capture any action-oriented details in the WBS, the designer will likely include either too many actions or too few actions. This also ensures that the WBS is not overly prescriptive of methods, allowing for greater ingenuity and creative thinking on the part of the project participants.
For new product development projects, the most common technique to ensure an outcome-oriented WBS is to use a product breakdown structure.
Feature-driven software projects may use a similar technique which is to employ a feature breakdown structure. When a project provides professional services, a common technique is to capture all planned deliverables to create a deliverable-oriented WBS. Level of detail[ edit ] One must decide when to stop dividing work into smaller elements.
This will assist in determining the duration of activities necessary to produce a deliverable defined by the WBS.
There are several heuristics or "rules of thumb" used when determining the appropriate duration of an activity or group of activities necessary to produce a specific deliverable defined by the WBS. The first is the "80 hour rule" which means that no single activity or group of activities at the lowest level of detail of the WBS to produce a single deliverable should be more than 80 hours of effort.
The second rule of thumb is that no activity or group of activities at the lowest level of detail of the WBS should be longer than a single reporting period.
Thus if the project team is reporting progress monthly, then no single activity or series of activities should be longer than one month long.
The last heuristic is the "if it makes sense" rule. Applying this rule of thumb, one can apply "common sense" when creating the duration of a single activity or group of activities necessary to produce a deliverable defined by the WBS.
A work package at the activity level is a task that: Coding scheme[ edit ] It is common for work breakdown structure elements to be numbered sequentially to reveal the hierarchical structure.
The purpose for the numbering is to provide a consistent approach to identifying and managing the WBS across like systems regardless of vendor or service.The Theory-Theory of Concepts. The Theory-Theory of observable properties of categories. More generally, it is the commitment to there being a certain kind of causal structure underlying the categories we commonly represent.
). Whether or not a thoroughgoing Theory-Theory perspective is ultimately vindicated, its key insights will. That postmodernism is indefinable is a truism. However, it can be described as a set of critical, strategic and rhetorical practices employing concepts such as difference, repetition, the trace, the simulacrum, and hyperreality to destabilize other concepts such as presence, identity, historical progress, epistemic certainty, and the univocity of meaning.
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Explores the myriad ways scholars approach fundamental issues of contemporary human communication. Key Concepts: Underlying Structures of Culture waiting for the other person to indicate when fa- miliarity is acceptable. Like their near relations the Germans, many Anglo-Americans (mostly those of northern Eu- ropean heritage) are not only low-context but they also lack extensive, wel -developed informa- tion networks.
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Systems thinking can give you an edge in your business and career. Deciding the most suited message format for microservices is a another key factor.
The traditional monolithic applications use complex binary formats, SOA/Web services-based applications use text messages based on the complex message formats (SOAP) and schemas (xsd).